HISTORIANS

littlexena:

ghostsofvaudeville:

If you aren’t using this website, you’re missing out! It is a collection of primary sources throughout history, online, in plain-text format! With a search engine!

May also be useful for writers

(via tomeeklystay)

Tags: history

historia-polski:

In 2011 Mówią Wieki, a Polish historical magazine announced a poll in which readers chose the most influential women in Poland’s history.  Among those chosen were monarchs, saints, actresses, writers, activists, scientists, and war heroes.  These ten women topped the list:

Maria Skłodowska-Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the only woman to win in two fields, and the only person to win in multiple sciences. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.  Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world’s first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she established the first military field radiological centres. (source) Read More

Elżbieta Zawacka (19 March 1909 – 10 January 2009), known also by her war-time nom de guerre Zo, was a Polish university professor, scouting instructor, SOE agent and a freedom fighter during World War II. She was also a Brigadier General of the Polish Army (the second and last woman in the history of the Polish Army to hold this rank), promoted by President Lech Kaczyński on May 3, 2006. The only woman among the Cichociemni, she served as a courier for the Home Army, carrying letters and other documents from Nazi-occupied Poland to the Polish government in exile and back. Her regular route ran from Warsaw through Berlin and Sweden to London. She was also responsible for organizing routes for other couriers of the Home Army. (source)

Irena Sendlerowa (15 February 1910 – 12 May 2008) was a Polish nurse/social worker who served in the Polish Underground during World War II, and as head of children’s section of Żegota, an underground resistance organization in German-occupied Warsaw. Assisted by some two dozen other Żegota members, Sendler smuggled some 2,500 Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto and then provided them with false identity documents and with housing outside the Ghetto, saving those children during the Holocaust.  The Nazis eventually discovered her activities, tortured her, and sentenced her to death, but she managed to evade execution and survive the war. In 1965, Sendler was recognized by the State of Israel as Righteous among the Nations. Late in life she was awarded Poland’s highest honor for her wartime humanitarian efforts. She appears on a silver 2008 Polish commemorative coin honoring some of the Polish Righteous among the Nations. (source)

Urszula Ledóchowska (17 April 1865 – 29 May 1939) was a Polish Catholic Religious Sister, who founded the Congregation of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus. She was a member of the prominent Ledóchowski family. She has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church.  In Kraków she opened a home for female university students. At that time, that was a new phenomenon. With a special blessing of Pope Pius X, she went to St. Petersburg in Russia, where she worked to build up St. Catharine House, which was a residence for Roman Catholic Polish youth living there. She wore civil clothes, because Roman Catholic institutions were illegal in the Russian Empire. As the tsarist government oppression to Catholics grew, she moved to Russian-controlled Finland, where she translated prayers and songs for Finnish fishermen, who usually were Protestants. In 1914, she finally was expelled from the empire.  After then settling in Stockholm, Sweden, Ledóchowska started a language school and a domestic science school for girls. In Denmark, she founded an orphanage. In 1920, she moved back to Poland with 40 other nuns who had joined her in her mission. With permission from Rome, she changed her independent monastery in Pniewy into the then newly founded Congregation of the Ursulines of the Agonizing Heart of Jesus. In 1928 she founded a religious centre in Rome. In 1930 she sent 30 nuns to female Polish workers in France. (source)

Jadwiga Andegaweńska (1373/4 – 17 July 1399) was monarch of Poland from 1384 to her death. Her official title was ‘king' rather than 'queen', reflecting that she was a sovereign in her own right and not merely a royal consort. She was a member of the Capetian House of Anjou, the daughter of King Louis I of Hungary and Elizabeth of Bosnia.  In 1387, Jadwiga led two successful military expeditions to reclaim the province of Halych in Red Ruthenia, which had been retained by Hungary in a dynastic dispute at her accession. As she was an heiress to Louis I of Hungary herself, the expeditions were for the most part peaceful and resulted in Petru I of Moldavia paying homage to the Polish monarchs in September 1387.  In 1390 she began a correspondence with the Teutonic Knights, followed by personal meetings in which she opened diplomatic negotiations herself.  She sponsored writers and artists and donated much of her personal wealth, including her royal insignia, to charity, for purposes including the founding of hospitals.  She financed a scholarship for twenty Lithuanians to study at Charles University in Prague to help strengthen Christianity in their country, to which purpose she also founded a bishopric in Vilnius. Among her most notable cultural legacies was the restoration of the Kraków Academy, which in 1817 was renamed Jagiellonian University in honour of the Jadwiga and her husband, Władysław II Jagiełło. (source) Read More

Izabela Czartoryska (3 March 1746 – 15 July 1835) was a Polish aristocrat, writer, art collector, and founder of Poland’s first museum, the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.  In 1775, together with her husband, Czartoryska completely transformed the Czartoryski Palace at Puławy into an intellectual and political meeting place. Her court was one of the most liberal and progressive in the Commonwealth, although some aspects of her behavior also caused scandals.  In 1784 she joined the Patriotic Party.  After the suppression of the Kościuszko Uprising, her sons Adam Jerzy and Konstanty Adam were taken as political hostages by Russia’s Empress Catherine II.  In 1796 Izabela ordered the rebuilding of the ruined palace at Puławy and began a museum. Among the first objects to be included were Turkish trophies that had been seized by Polish King Jan III Sobieski's forces at the 1683 Battle of Vienna. Also included were Polish royal treasures and historic Polish family heirlooms. In 1801 Izabela opened the first museum in Poland, the Temple of the Sibyl, also called “The Temple of Memory”. It contained objects of sentimental importance pertaining to the glories and miseries of human life. During the November Uprising in 1830, the museum was closed. Izabela's son Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, going into exile in Paris, evacuated the museum's surviving objects to the Hôtel Lambert. His son Władysław Czartoryski would reopen the museum in 1878 in Kraków, where it exists today. (source)

Pola Negri (December 31, 1896 – 1 August 1987) was a Polish stage and film actress who achieved worldwide fame during the silent and golden eras of Hollywood and European film for her tragedienne and femme fatale roles. She was the first European film star to be invited to Hollywood, and became one of the most popular actresses in American silent film. She also started several important women’s fashion trends that are still staples of the women’s fashion industry. Her varied career included work as an actress in theater and vaudeville; as a singer and recording artist; as an author; and as a ballerina. (source)

Bona Sforza (2 February 1494 - 19 November 1557) member of the powerful Milanese House of Sforza. In 1518, she became the second wife of Sigismund I the Old, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, and became the Queen of Poland and Grand Duchess of Lithuania.  Almost from the beginning of her life in Poland, Queen Bona tried to gain a strong political position. She began to form her own cabal and also benefited from the support of the king. She was also supported by Piotr Kmita Sobieński, Andrew Ladislaus and Piotr Gamrat, taking them to her offices and creating the so-called Triumvirate. She managed to also get Pope Leo X to decide on the appointment of fifteen ecclesiastical benefice of very high importance (e.g. in Kraków, Gniezno, Poznań, Włoclawek and Frombork).  In foreign policy, she was a fierce opponent of the Habsburgs and a supporter of a closer alliance with France. In Hungary during the wars that took place after the Battle of Mohacs in 1526, supported by János Szapolyai against the Habsburgs. Bona also sought to maintain good relations with Sublime Porte and contacts with Roxelana, the most important wife of Suleyman the Magnificent. Bona was also a spokesperson for connecting Silesia to the Crown in return for her hereditary principality Bari and Rosano, but Sigismund the Old did not support the idea and the whole project collapsed. Bona managed to also carry out tax reforms in Lithuania and agricultural products (including uniform duties of the peasants and a unit of area measurements). (source) Read More

Maria Konopnicka (May 23, 1842 – October 8, 1910) was a Polish poet, novelist, writer for children and youth, a translator, journalist and critic, as well as an activist for women’s rights and Polish independence. She used the pseudonym Jan Sawa and others. She was one of the most important Polish poets of the positivism in Poland period.  In addition to being an active writer, she was also a social activist, organizing and participating in protest actions against the repression of ethnic (primarily Polish) and religious minorities in Prussia.  She was also involved with the women’s rights activism.  Konopnicka wrote prose (primarily short stories) as well as poems.  One of her most characteristic styles were poems stylized as folk songs.  She would try her hand at many genres of literature, such as reportage sketches, narrative memoirs, psychological portrait studies and others.  Common theme in her works included the oppression and poverty of the peasantry, the workers and the Polish Jews.  Her works were also highly patriotic and nationalistic.  Due to her sympathy for the Jewish people she was described as a philosemite.  One of her best known works is the long epic in six cantos, Mister Balcer in Brazil (Pan Balcer w Brazylii, 1910), on the Polish emigrants in Brazil.  Another one was Rota (Oath, 1908) which set to the music by Feliks Nowowiejski two years later became an unofficial anthem of Poland, particularly in the territories of the Prussian partition.  This patriotic poem was strongly critical of the Germanization policies and thus described as anti-German.  Her most famous children’s literature work is the 1896 O krasonoludkach i sierotce Marysi’ (Little Orphan Mary and the Gnomes). Her children literature works were well received, as compared to many other works of the period.  Maria Konopnicka also composed a poem about the execution of the Irish patriot, Robert Emmett. Emmett was executed by the British authorities in Dublin in 1803, but Konopnicka published her poem on the topic in 1908.  She was also a translator. Her translated works include Ada Negri’s Fatalita and Tempeste, published in Poland in 1901. (source)

Emilia Plater (13 November 1806 – 23 December 1831) was a Polish–Lithuanian noblewoman and revolutionary from the lands of the partitioned Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Raised in a patriotic Polish tradition, she fought in the November 1830 Uprising, during which she raised a small unit, participated in several engagements, and received the rank of captain in the Polish-Lithuanian insurgent forces. Near the end of the Uprising, she fell ill and died. Though she did not participate in any major engagement, her story became widely publicized and inspired a number of works of art and literature. She is a national heroine in Poland, Lithuania and Belarus, all formerly parts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. She has been venerated by Polish artists and by the nation at large as a symbol of women fighting for the national cause. (source

(via marchesamedici)

Anonymous said: is there something wrong with medievalpoc? genuinely curious

The person who runs it used to be known as girljanitor—I don’T know what her new url is nor do I give a single flying motherfuck—who is a huge tumblrista bully/brat/scammer, who has claimed all kinds of oppressed identities, with bullshit stories about her oppressed background.

Secondly, her history is shit. And I say this as the currently-inebriated chick who shat out the post “Hi, I’m Gavrilo Princip, and welcome to Jackass.” Her research into poc in early modern/premodern europe is shit, her gathering of original sources is shit, her drawing of conclusions is shit, everything is shit. She sets out with the intention of “HOW CAN I CLUMSILY SHOEHORN BLACK PPL (because of course this is run from an american white ppl vs. black ppl dichotomy because lol whut there r other poc??? whut r countries other then murica??? lol crazy talk u whitesplainer!!!!!!!) and gathers and interprets her data accordingly.

God, what REALLY pisses me off is that a blog about poc in early modern and pre-modern europe is such a FUCKING AWESOME idea, and SOOO necessary, but who’s the first person to become famous with such an idea? a fame-seeking tantrum-throwing tumblr sjw brat who uses it for self-promotion and who SUCKS at history.

Nah, miss me with that fucking bullshit

"The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America. I am apt to believe that it will be celebrated, by succeeding Generations, as the great anniversary Festival. It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, Guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more."

John Adams, remarking that July 2 should go down into history as American independence day, since it was on July 2, 1776 that the Continental Congress agreed to support the Declaration of Independence. The Declaration was formally approved, after edits, on July 4 —!— and signed in August.

So happy almost-holiday, everybody!

(via politicalprof)

kvetchlandia:

Théorigne de Méricourt, Woman Activist in the French Revolution     Uncredited and Undated Etching
“Let us arm ourselves. Let us show the men that we are not their inferiors in courage or virtue. Let us rise to the level of our destinies and break our chains. It is high time that women emerged from the shameful state of nullity and ignorance, to which the arrogance and injustice of men have so long condemned us.” Théorigne de Méricourt 

kvetchlandia:

Théorigne de Méricourt, Woman Activist in the French Revolution     Uncredited and Undated Etching

“Let us arm ourselves. Let us show the men that we are not their inferiors in courage or virtue. Let us rise to the level of our destinies and break our chains. It is high time that women emerged from the shameful state of nullity and ignorance, to which the arrogance and injustice of men have so long condemned us.” Théorigne de Méricourt 

(via bunniesandbeheadings)

Tags: history

erikkwakkel:

A love story hidden in a hat
You are looking at a medieval book from c. 1270, but it has a most unusual shape - and a most ironic story. In fact, you are looking at fragments of a such a book, which form a research passion of mine. In the early-modern period bookbinders cut up medieval manuscripts because the handwritten objects had become old-fashioned after the invention of printing. As a result, we encounter snippets of manuscripts on the inside of bookbindings, as I explain in this blog about such beautiful destruction - a more recent discovery is presented in this blog.
Occasionally the recycled parchment sheets were used for other purposes: the pages in this image form the lining of a bishop’s mitre - onto which the cloth was subsequently pasted. What’s remarkable about the hat is not just that the poor bishop had a bunch of hidden medieval pages on his head, but that they were cut from a Norwegian translation of Old French love poetry (so-called lais). Lovers were chasing each other through dark corridors, maidens were frolicking in the fields, knights were butchering each other over nothing. All the while the oblivious bishop was performing the rites of the Holy Mass. It’s a wonderful historical clash; as well as the mother of all irony.
Pic: Copenhagen, Den Arnamagnæanske Samling, MS AM 666 b 4to (c. 1270,  Strengleikar, Norse translation of Old French love poems). More information about this wicked item here.

erikkwakkel:

A love story hidden in a hat

You are looking at a medieval book from c. 1270, but it has a most unusual shape - and a most ironic story. In fact, you are looking at fragments of a such a book, which form a research passion of mine. In the early-modern period bookbinders cut up medieval manuscripts because the handwritten objects had become old-fashioned after the invention of printing. As a result, we encounter snippets of manuscripts on the inside of bookbindings, as I explain in this blog about such beautiful destruction - a more recent discovery is presented in this blog.

Occasionally the recycled parchment sheets were used for other purposes: the pages in this image form the lining of a bishop’s mitre - onto which the cloth was subsequently pasted. What’s remarkable about the hat is not just that the poor bishop had a bunch of hidden medieval pages on his head, but that they were cut from a Norwegian translation of Old French love poetry (so-called lais). Lovers were chasing each other through dark corridors, maidens were frolicking in the fields, knights were butchering each other over nothing. All the while the oblivious bishop was performing the rites of the Holy Mass. It’s a wonderful historical clash; as well as the mother of all irony.

Pic: Copenhagen, Den Arnamagnæanske Samling, MS AM 666 b 4to (c. 1270,  Strengleikar, Norse translation of Old French love poems). More information about this wicked item here.

(via twotickets)

Tags: poetry history

karosen:

The Rus’ Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a polity that was postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.
It was suggested that the Rus’ Khaganate was a state, or a cluster of city-states, set up by a people called Rus’, who may have been Norsemen, somewhere in what is today European Russia, as a chronological predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and the Kievan Rus’. The region’s population at that time was composed of Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Turkic, Hungarian, and Norse peoples. The region was also a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates.
While there have been several theories, the prevailing opinion today (as of 2013) is that the population centers of the region may have included the proto-towns of Holmgard, Aldeigja, Lyubsha, Alaborg, Sarskoye Gorodishche, and Timerevo.
According to sparse contemporaneous sources, the leader or leaders of Rus people at this time were using the Old Turkic title Khagan, hence the suggested name of their organization.
This period is thought to be the times of the genesis of a distinct Rus’ ethnos, which gave rise to Kievan Rus’ and later states from which modern Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine evolved.

karosen:

The Rus’ Khaganate is the name applied by some modern historians to a polity that was postulated to exist during a poorly documented period in the history of Eastern Europe, roughly the late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD.

It was suggested that the Rus’ Khaganate was a state, or a cluster of city-states, set up by a people called Rus’, who may have been Norsemen, somewhere in what is today European Russia, as a chronological predecessor to the Rurik Dynasty and the Kievan Rus’. The region’s population at that time was composed of Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Turkic, Hungarian, and Norse peoples. The region was also a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers, merchants, and pirates.

While there have been several theories, the prevailing opinion today (as of 2013) is that the population centers of the region may have included the proto-towns of Holmgard, Aldeigja, Lyubsha, Alaborg, Sarskoye Gorodishche, and Timerevo.

According to sparse contemporaneous sources, the leader or leaders of Rus people at this time were using the Old Turkic title Khagan, hence the suggested name of their organization.

This period is thought to be the times of the genesis of a distinct Rus’ ethnos, which gave rise to Kievan Rus’ and later states from which modern Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine evolved.

(via solipsistictendencies)

Tags: history